Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nature. 2016 May 26;533(7604):539-42. doi: 10.1038/nature17671. Epub 2016 May 11.

Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.

Okbay A1,2,3, Beauchamp JP4, Fontana MA5, Lee JJ6, Pers TH7,8,9,10, Rietveld CA1,2,3, Turley P4, Chen GB11, Emilsson V12,13, Meddens SF3,14,15, Oskarsson S16, Pickrell JK17, Thom K18, Timshel P8,19, de Vlaming R1,2,3, Abdellaoui A20, Ahluwalia TS9,21,22, Bacelis J23, Baumbach C24,25, Bjornsdottir G26, Brandsma JH27, Pina Concas M28, Derringer J29, Furlotte NA30, Galesloot TE31, Girotto G32, Gupta R33, Hall LM34,35, Harris SE36,37, Hofer E38,39, Horikoshi M40,41, Huffman JE42, Kaasik K43, Kalafati IP44, Karlsson R45, Kong A26, Lahti J43,46, van der Lee SJ2, deLeeuw C14,47, Lind PA48, Lindgren KO16, Liu T49, Mangino M50,51, Marten J42, Mihailov E52, Miller MB6, van der Most PJ53, Oldmeadow C54,55, Payton A56,57, Pervjakova N52,58, Peyrot WJ59, Qian Y60, Raitakari O61, Rueedi R62,63, Salvi E64, Schmidt B65, Schraut KE66, Shi J67, Smith AV12,68, Poot RA27, St Pourcain B69,70, Teumer A71, Thorleifsson G26, Verweij N72, Vuckovic D32, Wellmann J73, Westra HJ8,74,75, Yang J76,77, Zhao W78, Zhu Z11, Alizadeh BZ53,79, Amin N2, Bakshi A11, Baumeister SE71,80, Biino G81, Bønnelykke K21, Boyle PA76,82, Campbell H66, Cappuccio FP83, Davies G36,84, De Neve JE85, Deloukas P86,87, Demuth I88,89, Ding J60, Eibich P90,91, Eisele L65, Eklund N58, Evans DM69,92, Faul JD93, Feitosa MF94, Forstner AJ95,96, Gandin I32, Gunnarsson B26, Halldórsson BV26,97, Harris TB98, Heath AC99, Hocking LJ100, Holliday EG54,55, Homuth G101, Horan MA102, Hottenga JJ20, de Jager PL8,103,104, Joshi PK66, Jugessur A105, Kaakinen MA106, Kähönen M107,108, Kanoni S86, Keltigangas-Järvinen L43, Kiemeney LA31, Kolcic I109, Koskinen S58, Kraja AT94, Kroh M90, Kutalik Z62,63,110, Latvala A33, Launer LJ111, Lebreton MP15,112, Levinson DF113, Lichtenstein P45, Lichtner P114, Liewald DC36,84; LifeLines Cohort Study, Loukola A33, Madden PA99, Mägi R52, Mäki-Opas T58, Marioni RE11,36,115, Marques-Vidal P116, Meddens GA117, McMahon G69, Meisinger C25, Meitinger T114, Milaneschi Y59, Milani L52, Montgomery GW118, Myhre R105, Nelson CP34,35, Nyholt DR118,119, Ollier WE56, Palotie A8,120,121,122,123,124, Paternoster L69, Pedersen NL45, Petrovic KE38, Porteous DJ37, Räikkönen K43,46, Ring SM69, Robino A125, Rostapshova O4,126, Rudan I66, Rustichini A127, Salomaa V58, Sanders AR128,129, Sarin AP123,130, Schmidt H38,131, Scott RJ55,132, Smith BH133, Smith JA78, Staessen JA134,135, Steinhagen-Thiessen E88, Strauch K136,137, Terracciano A138, Tobin MD139, Ulivi S125, Vaccargiu S28, Quaye L50, van Rooij FJ2,140, Venturini C50,51, Vinkhuyzen AA11, Völker U101, Völzke H71, Vonk JM53, Vozzi D126, Waage J21,22, Ware EB78,141, Willemsen G20, Attia JR54,55, Bennett DA76,77, Berger K72, Bertram L142,143, Bisgaard H21, Boomsma DI20, Borecki IB94, Bültmann U144, Chabris CF145, Cucca F146, Cusi D64,147, Deary IJ36,84, Dedoussis GV44, van Duijn CM2, Eriksson JG46,148, Franke B149, Franke L150, Gasparini P32,125,151, Gejman PV128,129, Gieger C24, Grabe HJ152,153, Gratten J11, Groenen PJ154, Gudnason V12,68, van der Harst P72,150,155, Hayward C42,156, Hinds DA30, Hoffmann W71, Hyppönen E157,158,159, Iacono WG6, Jacobsson B23,105, Järvelin MR160,161,162,163, Jöckel KH65, Kaprio J33,58,123, Kardia SL78, Lehtimäki T164,165, Lehrer SF166,167, Magnusson PK45, Martin NG168, McGue M6, Metspalu A52,169, Pendleton N170,171, Penninx BW59, Perola M52,58, Pirastu N32, Pirastu M28, Polasek O66,172, Posthuma D14,173, Power C159, Province MA94, Samani NJ34,35, Schlessinger D60, Schmidt R38, Sørensen TI9,69,174, Spector TD50, Stefansson K26,68, Thorsteinsdottir U26,68, Thurik AR1,3,175,176, Timpson NJ69, Tiemeier H2,177,178, Tung JY30, Uitterlinden AG2,140, Vitart V42, Vollenweider P116, Weir DR93, Wilson JF42,66, Wright AF42, Conley DC179,180, Krueger RF6, Davey Smith G69, Hofman A2, Laibson DI4, Medland SE48, Meyer MN181, Yang J11,92, Johannesson M182, Visscher PM11,92, Esko T7,8,52,183, Koellinger PD3,14,15, Cesarini D18,184, Benjamin DJ5.

Author information

1
Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 3062 PA, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands.
3
Erasmus University Rotterdam Institute for Behavior and Biology, Rotterdam, 3062 PA, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.
5
Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-3332, USA.
6
Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.
7
Division of Endocrinology and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 2116, USA.
8
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
9
The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark.
10
Statens Serum Institut, Department of Epidemiology Research, Copenhagen 2300, Denmark.
11
Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.
12
Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur 201, Iceland.
13
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 107, Iceland.
14
Department of Complex Trait Genetics, VU University, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Amsterdam, 1081 HV, The Netherlands.
15
Amsterdam Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1018 TV, The Netherlands.
16
Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 20, Sweden.
17
New York Genome Center, New York, New York 10013, USA.
18
Department of Economics, New York University, New York, New York 10012, USA.
19
Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark Lyngby 2800, Denmark.
20
Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1081 BT, The Netherlands.
21
COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2820, Denmark.
22
Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte 2820, Denmark.
23
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg 416 85, Sweden.
24
Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany.
25
Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany.
26
deCODE Genetics/Amgen Inc., Reykjavik 101, Iceland.
27
Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, 3015 CN, The Netherlands.
28
Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica U.O.S. di Sassari, National Research Council of Italy, Sassari 07100, Italy.
29
Psychology, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA.
30
23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, California 94041, USA.
31
Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, 6500 HB, The Netherlands.
32
Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste 34100, Italy.
33
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
34
Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK.
35
NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK.
36
Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK.
37
Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK.
38
Department of Neurology, General Hospital and Medical University Graz, Graz 8036, Austria.
39
Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, General Hospital and Medical University Graz, Graz 8036, Austria.
40
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology &Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK.
41
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.
42
MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK.
43
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
44
Nutrition and Dietetics, Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens 17671, Greece.
45
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden.
46
Folkhälsan Research Centre, 00014 Helsingfors, Finland.
47
Institute for Computing and Information Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, 6525 EC, The Netherlands.
48
Quantitative Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia.
49
Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin 14195, Germany.
50
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK.
51
NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Guy's and St. Thomas' Foundation Trust, London SE1 7EH, UK.
52
Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia.
53
Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands.
54
Public Health Stream, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia.
55
Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia.
56
Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK.
57
Human Communication and Deafness, School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.
58
Department of Health, THL-National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland.
59
Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center &GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, 1081 HL, The Netherlands.
60
Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.
61
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, 20521 Turku, Finland.
62
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland.
63
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland.
64
Department Of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milano 20142, Italy.
65
Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen 45147, Germany.
66
Centre for Global Health Research, The Usher Institute for Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK.
67
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9780, USA.
68
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland.
69
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK.
70
School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS1 2LY, UK.
71
Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany.
72
Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands.
73
Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany.
74
Divisions of Genetics and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
75
Partners Center for Personalized Genetic Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
76
Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.
77
Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.
78
Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.
79
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9713 GZ, The Netherlands.
80
Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053, Germany.
81
Institute of Molecular Genetics, National Research Council of Italy, Pavia 27100, Italy.
82
Department of Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.
83
Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.
84
Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK.
85
Saïd Business School, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP, UK.
86
William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK.
87
Princess Al-Jawhara Al-Brahim Centre of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders (PACER-HD), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
88
The Berlin Aging Study II; Research Group on Geriatrics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany, Berlin 13347, Germany.
89
Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Berlin 13353, Germany.
90
German Socio- Economic Panel Study, DIW Berlin, Berlin 10117, Germany.
91
Health Economics Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK.
92
The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia.
93
Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.
94
Department of Genetics, Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63018, USA.
95
Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn 53127, Germany.
96
Department of Genomics, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn 53127, Germany.
97
Institute of Biomedical and Neural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik 101, Iceland.
98
Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9205, USA.
99
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
100
Division of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK.
101
Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany.
102
Manchester Medical School, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK.
103
Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Departments of Neurology &Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
104
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
105
Department of Genes and Environment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo, Norway.
106
Department of Genomics of Common Disease, Imperial College London, London, W12 0NN, UK.
107
Department of Clinical Physiology, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere, Finland.
108
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere, School of Medicine, 33014 Tampere, Finland.
109
Public Health, Medical School, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia.
110
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne 1010, Switzerland.
111
Neuroepidemiology Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9205, USA.
112
Amsterdam Brain and Cognition Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1018 XA, The Netherlands.
113
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5797, USA.
114
Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany.
115
Medical Genetics Section, Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.
116
Department of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne 1011, Switzerland.
117
Tema BV, Hoofddorp, 2131 HE, The Netherlands.
118
Molecular Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia.
119
Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland Institute of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia.
120
Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
121
The Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
122
Psychiatric &Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
123
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
124
Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
125
Medical Genetics, Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste 34100, Italy.
126
Social Impact, Arlington, Virginia 22201, USA.
127
Department of Economics, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.
128
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois 60201-3137, USA.
129
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
130
Public Health Genomics Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00300 Helsinki, Finland.
131
Research Unit for Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Center of Molecular Medicine, General Hospital and Medical University, Graz, Graz 8010, Austria.
132
Information Based Medicine Stream, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia.
133
Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK.
134
Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Cardiovascular Science, University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium.
135
R&D VitaK Group, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 6229 EV, The Netherlands.
136
Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany.
137
Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig Maximilians-Universität, Munich 81377, Germany.
138
Department of Geriatrics, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA.
139
Department of Health Sciences and Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.
140
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands.
141
Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA.
142
Platform for Genome Analytics, Institutes of Neurogenetics &Integrative and Experimental Genomics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany.
143
Neuroepidemiology and Ageing Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
144
Department of Health Sciences, Community &Occupational Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9713 AV, The Netherlands.
145
Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308, USA.
146
Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica (IRGB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, c/o Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, Monserrato, Cagliari 9042, Italy.
147
Institute of Biomedical Technologies, Italian National Research Council, Segrate (Milano) 20090, Italy.
148
Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
149
Departments of Human Genetics and Psychiatry, Donders Centre for Neuroscience, Nijmegen, 6500 HB, The Netherlands.
150
Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands.
151
Sidra, Experimental Genetics Division, Sidra, Doha 26999, Qatar.
152
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald 17475, Germany.
153
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, HELIOS-Hospital Stralsund, Stralsund 18437, Germany.
154
Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 3062 PA, The Netherlands.
155
Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute, Utrecht, 1105 AZ, The Netherlands.
156
Generation Scotland, Centre for Genomics and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK.
157
Centre for Population Health Research, School of Health Sciences and Sansom Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.
158
South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.
159
Population, Policy and Practice, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK.
160
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment &Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK.
161
Center for Life Course Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
162
Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, 90029 Oulu, Finland.
163
Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
164
Fimlab Laboratories, 33520 Tampere, Finland.
165
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere, School of Medicine, 33014 Tampere, Finland.
166
Economics, NYU Shanghai, 200122 Pudong, China.
167
Policy Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada.
168
Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia.
169
Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia.
170
Centre for Clinical and Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute Brain Behaviour and Mental Health, Salford Royal Hospital, Manchester M6 8HD, UK.
171
Manchester Institute for Collaborative Research in Ageing, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.
172
Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, Split 21000, Croatia.
173
Department of Clinical Genetics, VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam, 1081 HV, The Netherlands.
174
Institute of Preventive Medicine. Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals, The Capital Region, Frederiksberg 2000, Denmark.
175
Montpellier Business School, Montpellier 34080, France.
176
Panteia, Zoetermeer, 2715 CA, The Netherlands.
177
Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands.
178
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands.
179
Department of Sociology, New York University, New York, New York 10012, USA.
180
School of Medicine, New York University, New York, New York 10016, USA.
181
Bioethics Program, Union Graduate College - Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Schenectady, New York 12308, USA.
182
Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm 113 83, Sweden.
183
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
184
Research Institute for Industrial Economics, Stockholm 10215, Sweden.

Abstract

Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

PMID:
27225129
PMCID:
PMC4883595
DOI:
10.1038/nature17671
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms

Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center