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Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016 Jul;18(7):68. doi: 10.1007/s11920-016-0704-3.

Systematic Review of Clozapine Cardiotoxicity.

Author information

1
International Consortium for Psychotic and Mood Disorders, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA. martina.curto@gmail.com.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. martina.curto@gmail.com.
3
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. martina.curto@gmail.com.
4
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
5
Advanced Molecular Diagnostics Unit, IDI-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
6
Department of Cardiology, Sant'Andrea Medical Center, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
7
NESMOS Department, Sant'Andrea Medical Center, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
8
International Consortium for Psychotic and Mood Disorders, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA.
9
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

Clozapine is exceptionally effective in psychotic disorders and can reduce suicidal risk. Nevertheless, its use is limited due to potentially life-threatening adverse effects, including myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Given their clinical importance, we systematically reviewed research on adverse cardiac effects of clozapine, aiming to improve estimates of their incidence, summarize features supporting their diagnosis, and evaluate proposed monitoring procedures. Incidence of early (≤2 months) myocarditis ranges from <0.1 to 1.0 % and later (3-12 months) cardiomyopathy about 10 times less. Diagnosis rests on relatively nonspecific symptoms, ECG changes, elevated indices of myocardial damage, cardiac MRI findings, and importantly, echocardiographic evidence of developing ventricular failure. Treatment involves stopping clozapine and empirical applications of steroids, diuretics, beta-blockers, and antiangiotensin agents. Mortality averages approximately 25 %. Safety of clozapine reuse remains uncertain. Systematic studies are needed to improve knowledge of the epidemiology, avoidance, early identification, and treatment of these adverse effects, with effective and practicable monitoring protocols.

KEYWORDS:

Adverse; Cardiac; Clozapine; Myocarditis; Prevention; Toxicity

PMID:
27222142
DOI:
10.1007/s11920-016-0704-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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