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Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017 May/Jun;33(3):213-217. doi: 10.1097/IOP.0000000000000715.

Orbitofacial Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of 10 Cases.

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*Department of Ophthalmology, Wake Forest University Eye Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and †Ophthalmic Plastic and Orbital Oncology, Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.



To explore the clinical features, management, and prognosis of metastatic basal cell carcinoma originating in the orbitofacial region.


Ten cases of orbitofacial metastatic basal cell carcinoma were identified by searching databases at 2 institutions from 1995 to 2015. A retrospective chart review was performed. Main outcome measures included patient demographics, lesion size, location of metastases, histologic subtype, recurrence rate, time between primary tumor diagnosis and metastasis, perineural invasion, treatment modalities, and survival from time of metastasis.


The median tumor size at largest dimension was 3.3 cm (range, 1.9-11.5 cm), and 6 of 10 patients had at least 1 local recurrence before metastasis (range, 0-2 recurrences). The most common sites of metastasis included the ipsilateral parotid gland (n = 6) and cervical lymph nodes (n = 5). Histologic subtypes included infiltrative (n = 5), basosquamous (n = 2), nodular (n = 1), and mixed (n = 1). The median time from primary tumor diagnosis to metastasis was 7.5 years (range, 0-13). The median survival time from diagnosis of metastasis to last documented encounter or death was 5.3 years (range, 7 months-22.8 years). Treatment regimens included surgical excision, radiotherapy, and hedgehog inhibitors.


Based on our findings, the following features may be markers of high risk orbitofacial basal cell carcinoma: 1) increasing tumor size, 2) local recurrence of the primary tumor, 3) aggressive histologic subtype, and 4) perineural invasion. Screening should include close observation of the primary site and tissues in the distribution of regional lymphatics, particularly the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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