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Curr Hepatol Rep. 2016 Jun;15(2):75-85. Epub 2016 Mar 28.

Extrahepatic Manifestations of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

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Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with an increased prevalence of metabolic, macro- and microvascular complications. The primary causes of mortality in NAFLD are cardiovascular disease (CVD), malignancy and liver disease. NAFLD is a multisystem disease that affects a variety of extra-hepatic organ systems. The main focus of this review is to summarize the reported extra-hepatic associations, which include CVD, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, osteoporosis, psoriasis, colorectal cancer, iron overload and various endocrinopathies (e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian syndrome). Due to the systemic manifestations of NAFLD patients require a multidisciplinary assessment and may benefit from more rigorous surveillance and early treatment interventions to decrease mortality related to malignancy or cardiometabolic diseases.


bone disease; cardiovascular disease (CVD); diabetes; iron overload; kidney disease; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); sex hormones; sleep apnea; thyroid disease

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