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Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016 Jun;241(12):1332-42. doi: 10.1177/1535370216651938. Epub 2016 May 22.

Wake me when it's over - Bacterial toxin-antitoxin proteins and induced dormancy.

Author information

1
Division of Pre-Clinical Innovation, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA ddaines@odu.edu.

Abstract

Toxin-antitoxin systems are encoded by bacteria and archaea to enable an immediate response to environmental stresses, including antibiotics and the host immune response. During normal conditions, the antitoxin components prevent toxins from interfering with metabolism and arresting growth; however, toxin activation enables microbes to remain dormant through unfavorable conditions that might continue over millions of years. Intense investigations have revealed a multitude of mechanisms for both regulation and activation of toxin-antitoxin systems, which are abundant in pathogenic microorganisms. This minireview provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding type II toxin-antitoxin systems along with their clinical and environmental implications.

KEYWORDS:

Bacteria; biomedical; enzymes; microbiology; protein–protein interactions; proteolysis

PMID:
27216598
PMCID:
PMC4909563
DOI:
10.1177/1535370216651938
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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