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Cancer Res. 2016 Jul 1;76(13):3711-8. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-3173. Epub 2016 May 23.

Clonotypic Diversification of Intratumoral T Cells Following Sipuleucel-T Treatment in Prostate Cancer Subjects.

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Research, Dendreon Pharmaceuticals Inc., Seattle, Washington.
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
Bioanalytical Sciences, Hospira, Inc., Lake Forrest, Illinois.
Adaptive Biotechnologies, Seattle, Washington.
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.


Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular therapy for asymptomatic, or minimally symptomatic, metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer, designed to stimulate an immune response against prostate cancer. In a recent clinical trial (NCT00715104), we found that neoadjuvant sipuleucel-T increased the number of activated T cells within the tumor microenvironment. The current analysis examined whether sipuleucel-T altered adaptive T-cell responses by expanding pre-existing T cells or by recruiting new T cells to prostate tissue. Next-generation sequencing of the T-cell receptor (TCR) genes from blood or prostate tissue was used to quantitate and track T-cell clonotypes in these treated subjects with prostate cancer. At baseline, there was a significantly greater diversity of circulating TCR sequences in subjects with prostate cancer compared with healthy donors. Among healthy donors, circulating TCR sequence diversity remained unchanged over the same time interval. In contrast, sipuleucel-T treatment reduced circulating TCR sequence diversity versus baseline as measured by the Shannon index. Interestingly, sipuleucel-T treatment resulted in greater TCR sequence diversity in resected prostate tissue in sipuleucel-T-treated subjects versus tissue of nonsipuleucel-T-treated subjects with prostate cancer. Furthermore, sipuleucel-T increased TCR sequence commonality between blood and resected prostate tissue in treated versus untreated subjects with prostate cancer. The broadening of the TCR repertoire within the prostate tissue supports the hypothesis that sipuleucel-T treatment facilitates the recruitment of T cells into the prostate. Our results highlight the importance of assessing T-cell response to immunotherapy both in the periphery and in tumor tissue. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3711-8.

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