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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Jul 22;60(8):4764-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00647-16. Print 2016 Aug.

In Vivo Pharmacodynamic Target Assessment of Delafloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Murine Lung Infection Model.

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Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA William S. Middleton Memorial VA Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin, USA


Delafloxacin is a broad-spectrum anionic fluoroquinolone under development for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia. The goal of the study was to determine the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets in the murine lung infection model for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae Four isolates of each species were utilized for in vivo studies: for S. aureus, one methicillin-susceptible and three methicillin-resistant isolates; S. pneumoniae, two penicillin-susceptible and two penicillin-resistant isolates; K. pneumoniae, one wild-type and three extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing isolates. MICs were determined using CLSI methods. A neutropenic murine lung infection model was utilized for all treatment studies, and drug dosing was by the subcutaneous route. Single-dose plasma pharmacokinetics was determined in the mouse model after administration of 2.5, 10, 40, and 160 mg/kg. For in vivo studies, 4-fold-increasing doses of delafloxacin (range, 0.03 to 160 mg/kg) were administered every 6 h (q6h) to infected mice. Treatment outcome was measured by determining organism burden in the lung (CFU counts) at the end of each experiment (24 h). The Hill equation for maximum effect (Emax) was used to model the dose-response data. The magnitude of the PK/PD index, the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC/MIC), associated with net stasis and 1-log kill endpoints was determined in the lung model for all isolates. MICs ranged from 0.004 to 1 mg/liter. Single-dose PK parameter ranges include the following: for maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax), 2 to 70.7 mg/liter; AUC from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-∞), 2.8 to 152 mg · h/liter; half-life (t1/2), 0.7 to 1 h. At the start of therapy mice had 6.3 ± 0.09 log10 CFU/lung. In control mice the organism burden increased 2.1 ± 0.44 log10 CFU/lung over the study period. There was a relatively steep dose-response relationship observed with escalating doses of delafloxacin. Maximal organism reductions ranged from 2 log10 to more than 4 log10 The median free-drug AUC/MIC magnitude associated with net stasis for each species group was 1.45, 0.56, and 40.3 for S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, and K. pneumoniae, respectively. AUC/MIC targets for the 1-log kill endpoint were 2- to 5-fold higher. Delafloxacin demonstrated in vitro and in vivo potency against a diverse group of pathogens, including those with phenotypic drug resistance to other classes. These results have potential relevance for clinical dose selection and evaluation of susceptibility breakpoints for delafloxacin for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections involving these pathogens.

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