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Curr Addict Rep. 2014 Mar;1(1):53-60. Epub 2014 Jan 10.

Women and Smoking: The Effect of Gender on the Epidemiology, Health Effects, and Cessation of Smoking.

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Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Medical School, University of Minnesota, 717 Delaware Street SE, Room 422, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA.
Department of Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, 263 Farmington, Farmington, CT 06030, USA,
Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Minnesota, 717 Delaware Street SE, Room 256, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA,


Smoking is still the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality. This paper examines new research on gender differences and the epidemiology of smoking, smoking-related morbidity and mortality, and factors that affect smoking cessation. The rate of decline in the prevalence of smoking has been slowing, especially among adolescent girls. New research suggests that, compared with men, women may be more susceptible to smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Gender-related barriers to smoking cessation include weight gain, sex hormones, and mood. Furthermore, the sensory aspects of smoking may have more of an effect on smoking treatment for women than for men. We discuss new studies that examine smoking-cessation interventions that may be particularly beneficial for women, including exercise (as an adjunct intervention), very low nicotine content cigarettes, and a variety of pharmacotherapy. Further research is needed to identify and target the gender-specific needs of smokers.


Cessation; Gender; Health Effects; Nicotine; Sex Hormones; Smoking; Women

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