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Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016 Jul;14(7):421-33. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro.2016.48. Epub 2016 May 23.

Human norovirus transmission and evolution in a changing world.

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Department of Viroscience, Erasmus University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.


Norovirus infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis, and outbreaks occur frequently. Several factors are currently increasing the challenge posed by norovirus infections to global health, notably the increasing number of infections in immunocompromised individuals, who are more susceptible to disease, and the globalization of the food industry, which enables large norovirus outbreaks to occur on an international scale. Furthermore, the rapid rate of the genetic and antigenic evolution of circulating noroviruses complicates the development of vaccines and therapies that are required to counter these challenges. In this Review, we describe recent advances in the study of the transmission, pathogenesis and evolution of human noroviruses, and consider the ongoing risk of norovirus outbreaks, together with the future prospects for therapeutics, in a rapidly changing world.

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