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Food Chem. 2016 Nov 1;210:541-50. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.002. Epub 2016 May 2.

Determination of free and esterified carotenoid composition in rose hip fruit by HPLC-DAD-APCI(+)-MS.

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Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 101, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden. Electronic address:
Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 101, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden.
Department of Biology, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden.
Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology of University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, 80-822 Gdansk, Poland.
Scandinavian Biotechnology Research AB, P.O. Box 158, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden.


Rose hip fruit, which contains high concentration of carotenoids is commonly used for different food products in Europe and it is considered to have medical properties. In this study, a simple, rapid and efficient HPLC-DAD-APCI(+)-MS method was developed and applied to identify and quantify the carotenoids in rose hip fruit of four rose species, including both unsaponified and saponified extract. In the unsaponified extract 23 carotenoid esters were detected, in which either rubixanthin ester or violaxanthin ester was the dominant component of the ester composition. In the saponified extract 21 carotenoids, including 11 xanthophylls and 10 carotenes were detected. This is the first time the total carotenoid composition, including the carotenoid esters in rose hip fruit were identified and quantified. This work reveals the potential of rose hip fruit to be utilized as a healthy dietary material and give chemical information for the possible future development in the pharmacology field.


5,6-Epoxy-lutein (PubChem CID: 5281244); Carotenoids; Fatty acid; HPLC-DAD-APCI(+)-MS; Identification; Lutein (PubChem CID: 5281243); Lycopene (PubChem CID: 446925); Rose hip fruit; Rubixanthin (PubChem CID: 5281252); Saponification; Violaxanthin (PubChem CID: 448438); Violaxanthin monolaurate (PubChem CID: 13932663); Xanthophyll ester; Zeaxanthin (PubChem CID: 5280899); Zeaxanthin laurate myristate (PubChem CID: 101997817); β-Carotene (PubChem CID: 5280489); β-Cryptoxanthin (PubChem CID: 5281235)

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