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EBioMedicine. 2016 Apr;6:126-138. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.02.040. Epub 2016 Feb 27.

A Long-term Co-perfused Disseminated Tuberculosis-3D Liver Hollow Fiber Model for Both Drug Efficacy and Hepatotoxicity in Babies.

Author information

1
Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
2
Tuberculosis Research Center Chennai, India.
3
KIYATEC Inc., Greenville, SC, USA.
4
Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; Tuberculosis Research Center Chennai, India. Electronic address: tawanda.gumbo@BSWhealth.org.

Abstract

Treatment of disseminated tuberculosis in children≤6years has not been optimized. The pyrazinamide-containing combination regimen used to treat disseminated tuberculosis in babies and toddlers was extrapolated from adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Due to hepatotoxicity worries, there are no dose-response studies in children. We designed a hollow fiber system model of disseminated intracellular tuberculosis with co-perfused three-dimensional organotypic liver modules to simultaneously test for efficacy and toxicity. We utilized pediatric pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide and acetaminophen to determine dose-dependent pyrazinamide efficacy and hepatotoxicity. Acetaminophen concentrations that cause hepatotoxicity in children led to elevated liver function tests, while 100mg/kg pyrazinamide did not. Surprisingly, pyrazinamide did not kill intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis up to fourfold the standard dose as monotherapy or as combination therapy, despite achieving high intracellular concentrations. Host-pathogen RNA-sequencing revealed lack of a pyrazinamide exposure transcript signature in intracellular bacteria or of phagolysosome acidification on pH imaging. Artificial intelligence algorithms confirmed that pyrazinamide was not predictive of good clinical outcomes in children≤6years who had extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Thus, adding a drug that works inside macrophages could benefit children with disseminated tuberculosis. Our in vitro model can be used to identify such new regimens that could accelerate cure while minimizing toxicity.

KEYWORDS:

3D liver hollow fiber model; Disseminated tuberculosis; Hepatotoxicity; Pediatric

PMID:
27211555
PMCID:
PMC4856747
DOI:
10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.02.040
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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