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Nat Commun. 2016 May 23;7:11582. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11582.

The fin-to-limb transition as the re-organization of a Turing pattern.

Onimaru K1,2,3, Marcon L1,2, Musy M1,2, Tanaka M3, Sharpe J1,2,4.

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Systems Biology Program, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Dr Aiguader 88, Barcelona 08003, Spain.
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain.
Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B-17, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501, Japan.
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010, Spain.


A Turing mechanism implemented by BMP, SOX9 and WNT has been proposed to control mouse digit patterning. However, its generality and contribution to the morphological diversity of fins and limbs has not been explored. Here we provide evidence that the skeletal patterning of the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula pectoral fin is likely driven by a deeply conserved Bmp-Sox9-Wnt Turing network. In catshark fins, the distal nodular elements arise from a periodic spot pattern of Sox9 expression, in contrast to the stripe pattern in mouse digit patterning. However, our computer model shows that the Bmp-Sox9-Wnt network with altered spatial modulation can explain the Sox9 expression in catshark fins. Finally, experimental perturbation of Bmp or Wnt signalling in catshark embryos produces skeletal alterations which match in silico predictions. Together, our results suggest that the broad morphological diversity of the distal fin and limb elements arose from the spatial re-organization of a deeply conserved Turing mechanism.

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