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Anal Biochem. 2017 Jul 15;529:4-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2016.05.006. Epub 2016 May 19.

Introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance.

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High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:


Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a useful tool for studying normal and pathological biochemical processes in tissues. In this review, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance and methods of obtaining nuclear magnetic resonance spectra are briefly outlined. The origin of the most important spectroscopic parameters-chemical shifts, coupling constants, longitudinal and transverse relaxation times, and spectroscopic line intensities-is explained, and the role of these parameters in interpretation of spectra is addressed. Basic methodological concepts of localized spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging for the study of tissue metabolism in vivo are also described.


Chemical shift; Coupling constant; Localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Nuclear magnetic resonance; Nuclear relaxation

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