Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Ther. 2016 Jun;38(6):1327-1339. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2016.04.032. Epub 2016 May 18.

Correlation Among Hypoglycemia, Glycemic Variability, and C-Peptide Preservation After Alefacept Therapy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Analysis of Data from the Immune Tolerance Network T1DAL Trial.

Author information

Federal Systems Division, Rho Inc, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Section of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Pediatrics, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Clinical Trials Group, Immune Tolerance Network, San Francisco, California.
Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, Washington.
Clinical Trials Group, Immune Tolerance Network, San Francisco, California. Electronic address:



In natural history studies, maintenance of higher levels of C-peptide secretion (a measure of endogenous insulin production) correlates with a lower incidence of major hypoglycemic events in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), but it is unclear whether this is also true for drug-induced C-peptide preservation.


We analyzed hypoglycemic events and glycemic control data from the T1DAL (Inducing Remission in New-Onset T1D with Alefacept) study, a trial of alefacept in new-onset T1D, which found significant C-peptide preservation at 1 and 2 years. We performed a post hoc analysis using mixed models of the association between the meal-stimulated 4-hour C-peptide AUC (4-hour AUC) and rates of major hypoglycemia, measures of glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]; mean glucometer readings), and variability (glucometer SDs; highest and lowest readings), and an index of partial remission (insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c[ IDAA1c]).


Data from 49 participants (33 in the alefacept group and 16 in the placebo group) were analyzed at baseline and 12 and 24 months. We found that the 4-hour AUC at baseline and at 1 year was a significant predictor of the number of hypoglycemic events during the ensuing 12-month interval (p = 0.030). There was a strong association between the 4-hour AUC and glucometer SDs (P < 0.001), highest readings (p < 0.001), and lowest readings (p = 0.03), all measures of glycemic variability. There was a strong inverse correlation between the 4-hour AUC and 2 measures of glycemic control: HbA1c and mean glucometer readings (both p < 0.001). There was also a strong inverse correlation between the 4-hour AUC and IDAA1c values (p < 0.001), as well as a strong correlation between IDAA1c values and glucometer SDs (p < 0.001), suggesting that reduced glycemic variability is associated with a trend toward partial remission. None of these analyses found a significant difference between the alefacept and placebo groups.


Measures of glycemic variability and control, including rates of hypoglycemia, are significantly correlated with preservation of C-peptide regardless of whether this is achieved by immune intervention with alefacept or natural variability in patients with new-onset T1D. Thus, preservation of endogenous insulin production by an immunomodulatory drug may confer clinical benefits similar to those seen in patients with higher C-peptide secretion due to slow disease progression.


alefacept; glycemic control; hypoglycemia; immune intervention; islet function; new-onset T1d

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center