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J Adolesc Health. 2016 Aug;59(2):135-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.03.025. Epub 2016 May 18.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder During Adolescence in the Primary Care Setting: A Concise Review.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco/Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, San Francisco, California.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; Department of Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine, Kaweah Delta Medical Center, Visalia, California. Electronic address: donh032612@gmail.com.
3
Department of Psychiatry, BHC Heritage Oaks Hospital, Sacramento, California.
4
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis School of Medicine and Health System, Sacramento, California; Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, Davis School of Medicine and Health System, Sacramento, California.
5
Department of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, University of California, Davis School of Medicine and Health System M.I.N.D. Institute, Sacramento, California.
6
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis School of Medicine and Health System, Sacramento, California; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis School of Medicine and Health System M.I.N.D. Institute, Sacramento, California.

Erratum in

Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with a worldwide prevalence of about 5% in school-age children. This review is intended to assist primary care providers (PCPs) in diagnosing and treating ADHD in adolescents. PubMed, PsychInfo, and Science Citation Index databases were searched from March 1990 to 2015 with the keywords: ADHD, primary care/pediatrics, and children/adolescents. Abstracts addressing diagnosis and/or treatment with 105 citations were identified including supplementary treatment guidelines/books. Adolescent ADHD presents with significant disturbances in attention, academic performance, and family relationships with unique issues associated with this developmental period. Diagnostic challenges include the variable symptom presentation during adolescence, complex differential diagnosis, and limited training and time for PCPs to conduct thorough evaluations. The evidence base for treatments in adolescence in comparison to those in children or adults with ADHD is relatively weak. Providers should be cognizant of prevention, early identification, and treatment of conditions associated with ADHD that emerge during adolescence such as substance use disorders. Adolescent ADHD management for the PCP is complex, requires further research, and perhaps new primary care psychiatric models, to assist in determining the optimal care for patients at this critical period.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; Adolescent; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Evaluation; Primary care; Treatment

PMID:
27209327
PMCID:
PMC5576000
DOI:
10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.03.025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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