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Front Pharmacol. 2016 Apr 28;7:104. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2016.00104. eCollection 2016.

Metagenomic Analysis of Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota in a Pregnant Rat Model.

Author information

1
Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddah, Saudi Arabia; Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddah, Saudi Arabia.
2
Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddah, Saudi Arabia; Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddah, Saudi Arabia.
3
Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddah, Saudi Arabia; Biotechnology Research Laboratories, Gastroenterology Surgery Center, Mansoura UniversityMansoura, Egypt.
4
Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddah, Saudi Arabia; Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science - Production of Bioproducts for Industrial Applications Research Group - Experimental Biochemistry Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddah, Saudi Arabia.
5
Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of BeirutBeirut, Lebanon; Adjunct to Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science - Production of Bioproducts for Industrial Applications Research Group, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddah, Saudi Arabia.
6
Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddah, Saudi Arabia; URMITE CNRS-IRD 198 UMR 6236, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université de la MéditerranéeMarseille, France.
7
Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA)-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM) that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyze the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor) on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus, and Helicobacter were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei, and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment.

KEYWORDS:

16S rRNA gene; amoxicillin; azithromycin; cefaclor; gut microbiota; pregnancy; rats

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