Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Opioid Manag. 2016 May-Jun;12(2):119-22. doi: 10.5055/jom.2016.0323.

Analgesic utilization before and after rescheduling of hydrocodone in a large academic level 1 trauma center.

Author information

  • 1Parkland Health & Hospital System, Dallas, Texas.
  • 2Psych MA, Parkland Health & Hospital System, Dallas, Texas.
  • 3University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.
  • 4Informatics Pharmacist, Department of Pharmacy, Parkland Health & Hospital System, Dallas, Texas.
  • 5Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.



Hydrocodone-containing products were recently rescheduled from Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) schedule III to schedule II due to concerns of abuse and misuse. These changes went into effect on October 6, 2014.


This quality improvement project involved a retrospective analysis to determine the effect of the DEA schedule change on prescribing habits of hydrocodone-containing products as well as the remaining schedule III and IV opioids, codeine (schedule III) and tramadol (schedule IV).


The authors performed a medication use evaluation at our academic level 1 trauma hospital system on outpatient use of hydrocodone-containing products, tramadol, and codeine-containing products for 6 months before and 6 months after the change to schedule II using our electronic record and pharmacy system.


A total of 88,428 prescription orders were analyzed. Comparison of prescriptions before and after the DEA schedule changes showed hydrocodone prescriptions reduced from an average of 225.97 per day to 1.20 per day. In addition, tramadol increased from 60.04 per day to 91.85 per day and codeine from 6.81 per day to 98.94 per day.


Our data show a very substantial decrease in utilization of hydrocodone-containing products and concomitant increase in the utilization of tramadol and codeine products at our hospital after the DEA schedule change.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center