Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016 Jun;23(6):R249-66. doi: 10.1530/ERC-16-0118. Epub 2016 May 18.

In touch with your feminine side: how oestrogen metabolism impacts prostate cancer.

Author information

1
Institute of Metabolism and Systems ResearchUniversity of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
2
Department of Internal MedicineErasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
3
Institute of Metabolism and Systems ResearchUniversity of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Centre for EndocrinologyDiabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Healthcare Partners, Birmingham, UK p.a.foster@bham.ac.uk.

Abstract

Prostate cancer is the primary cancer in males, with increasing global incidence rates making this malignancy a significant healthcare burden. Androgens not only promote normal prostate maturity but also influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Intriguingly, evidence now suggests endogenous and exogenous oestrogens, in the form of phytoestrogens, may be equally as relevant as androgens in prostate cancer growth. The prostate gland has the molecular mechanisms, catalysed by steroid sulphatase (STS), to unconjugate and utilise circulating oestrogens. Furthermore, prostate tissue also expresses enzymes essential for local oestrogen metabolism, including aromatase (CYP19A1) and 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Increased expression of these enzymes in malignant prostate tissue compared with normal prostate indicates that oestrogen synthesis is favoured in malignancy and thus may influence tumour progression. In contrast to previous reviews, here we comprehensively explore the epidemiological and scientific evidence on how oestrogens impact prostate cancer, particularly focusing on pre-receptor oestrogen metabolism and subsequent molecular action. We analyse how molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways involved in androgen and oestrogen synthesis intertwine to alter prostate tissue. Furthermore, we speculate on whether oestrogen receptor status in the prostate affects progression of this malignancy.

KEYWORDS:

17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; oestrogen; oestrogen receptor; prostate cancer; steroid sulphatase

PMID:
27194038
DOI:
10.1530/ERC-16-0118
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Sheridan PubFactory
Loading ...
Support Center