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NMR Biomed. 2017 Apr;30(4). doi: 10.1002/nbm.3552. Epub 2016 May 18.

Susceptibility-weighted imaging: current status and future directions.

Author information

1
The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
2
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
3
Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.
4
The MRI Institute of Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI, USA.
5
Department of Radiology, Branch of Shanghai First Hospital, Shanghai, China.
6
Department of Radiology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.
7
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
8
Department of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Abstract

Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a method that uses the intrinsic nature of local magnetic fields to enhance image contrast in order to improve the visibility of various susceptibility sources and to facilitate diagnostic interpretation. It is also the precursor to the concept of the use of phase for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Nowadays, SWI has become a widely used clinical tool to image deoxyhemoglobin in veins, iron deposition in the brain, hemorrhages, microbleeds and calcification. In this article, we review the basics of SWI, including data acquisition, data reconstruction and post-processing. In particular, the source of cusp artifacts in phase images is investigated in detail and an improved multi-channel phase data combination algorithm is provided. In addition, we show a few clinical applications of SWI for the imaging of stroke, traumatic brain injury, carotid vessel wall, siderotic nodules in cirrhotic liver, prostate cancer, prostatic calcification, spinal cord injury and intervertebral disc degeneration. As the clinical applications of SWI continue to expand both in and outside the brain, the improvement of SWI in conjunction with QSM is an important future direction of this technology.

KEYWORDS:

cerebral microbleeds; multi-channel phase data combination; phase imaging; quantitative susceptibility mapping; stroke; susceptibility-weighted imaging

PMID:
27192086
PMCID:
PMC5116013
DOI:
10.1002/nbm.3552
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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