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Sci Rep. 2016 May 18;6:26192. doi: 10.1038/srep26192.

HIV infection results in metabolic alterations in the gut microbiota different from those induced by other diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Ramón y Cajal and Ramón y Cajal Health Research Institute (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain.
2
Centro de Metabolómica y Bioanálisis (CEMBIO), Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad CEU San Pablo, Campus Montepríncipe, Madrid, Spain.
3
Institute of Catalysis, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
4
Institute of Animal Science, Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
5
Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community (FISABIO) - Public Health, Valencia, Spain.
6
Network Research Center for Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER-ESP), Madrid, Spain.
7
Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University Hospital La Paz, and La Paz Research Institute (IdiPAZ), Madrid, Spain.
8
Centro Sanitario Sandoval, Madrid, Spain.
9
HIV Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
10
Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva (Universidad de Valencia), Valencia, Spain.
11
Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Dairy Research Institute (IPLA), CSIC, Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain.

Abstract

Imbalances in gut bacteria have been associated with multiple diseases. However, whether there are disease-specific changes in gut microbial metabolism remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (n = 33) changes, at quantifiable levels, the metabolism of gut bacteria. These changes are different than those observed in patients with the auto-immune disease systemic lupus erythaematosus (n = 18), and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (n = 6). Using healthy controls as a baseline (n = 16), we demonstrate that a trend in the nature and directionality of the metabolic changes exists according to the type of the disease. The impact on the gut microbial activity, and thus the metabolite composition and metabolic flux of gut microbes, is therefore disease-dependent. Our data further provide experimental evidence that HIV infection drastically changed the microbial community, and the species responsible for the metabolism of 4 amino acids, in contrast to patients with the other two diseases and healthy controls. The identification in this present work of specific metabolic deficits in HIV-infected patients may define nutritional supplements to improve the health of these patients.

PMID:
27189771
PMCID:
PMC4870624
DOI:
10.1038/srep26192
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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