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BMC Res Notes. 2016 May 17;9:275. doi: 10.1186/s13104-016-2070-y.

Development and validation of the Japanese version of cognitive flexibility scale.

Author information

1
Research Centre for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan. keipunu@gmail.com.
2
United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, Japan. keipunu@gmail.com.
3
Department of Cognitive Behavioral Physiology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.
4
Research Centre for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.
5
United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Various instruments have been developed to assess cognitive flexibility, which is an important construct in psychology. Among these, the self-report cognitive flexibility scale (CFS) is particularly popular for use with English speakers; however, there is not yet a Japanese version of this scale. This study reports on the development of a Japanese version of the cognitive flexibility scale (CFS-J), and the assessment of its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validities.

METHODS:

We used the standard translation-back-translation process to develop the Japanese wording of the items and tested these using a sample of 335 eligible participants who did not have a mental illness, were aged 18 years or older, and lived in the suburbs of Tokyo. Participants included office workers, public servants, and college students; 71.6 % were women and 64.8 % were students. The translated scale's internal consistency reliability was assessed by calculating Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega, and test-retest reliability was assessed with 107 eligible participants via intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Spearman's correlation of coefficient. Exploratory factory analysis (EFA) and correlations with other scales were used to examine the factor-based and concurrent validities of the CFS-J.

RESULTS:

Results indicated that the CFS-J has good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.847, McDonald's omega = 0.871) and acceptable test-retest reliability (Spearman's = 0.687, ICC = 0.689). EFA provided evidence that the CFS-J has a one-factor structure and factor loadings were generally appropriate. The total CFS-J score was significantly and positively correlated with the cognitive flexibility inventory-Japanese version and its two subscales, along with the cognitive control scale and the positive subscale of the short Japanese version of the automatic thought questionnaire-revised (ATQ-R); further, it had a significantly negative correlation with the negative subscale of the ATQ-R (ps < 0.001). This study developed a Japanese version of the cognitive flexibility scale and confirmed its reliability and validity among a sample of people with no current mental illness, who were living in the suburbs of Tokyo.

KEYWORDS:

Cognitive flexibility; Cognitive flexibility scale; Japanese version; Reliability; Scale development; Validity

PMID:
27188498
PMCID:
PMC4869281
DOI:
10.1186/s13104-016-2070-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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