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Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2016 May;32(5):293-8. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1009-2587.2016.05.009.

[Analysis of clinical characteristics of 187 patients with Marjolin's ulcers].

[Article in Chinese]

Author information

1
Department of Burns and Reconstructive Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To analyze the etiology and clinical characteristics of Marjolin's ulcer, and to explore its prevention and treatment.

METHODS:

Medical records of 187 patients with Marjolin's ulcers admitted to the Department of Burns and Reconstructive Surgery of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 1998 to May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed, including gender, age of onset of initial injury or primary disease, age of onset of Marjolin's ulcer, initial injury or primary disease, length of latency, lengths of pre- and post-ulceration periods, lesion site, lesion type, lesion area, local scar tension, histopathological type, degree of carcinoma cell differentiation, bone invasion and lymphadenopathy, treatment, and prognosis. The relationships between the age of onset of initial injury or primary disease and the length of latency, and the length of pre-ulceration period and the length of post-ulceration period were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. The recurrence rates were processed with Fisher's exact test.

RESULTS:

(1) Among the patients, the ratio of male to female was nearly 1.6:1.0. The age of onset of initial injury or primary disease was 0.17-78.00 (17±18) years, and the age of onset of Marjolin's ulcers was 18-84 (49±14) years. (2) The most common initial injury among the patients was flame burn. The length of latency was 0.25-74.00 (32±16) years, and the lengths of pre- and post-ulceration periods were 0-73.00 (26±19) years and 0.08-59.00 (6±11) years respectively. The common lesion sites were the lower limbs and head and face. The rodent ulcer was the most common lesion type, and the lesion area was 1-625 (69±110) cm(2). There were obviously negative correlations between the age of onset of initial injury or primary disease and the length of latency, as well as the length of pre-ulceration period and the length of post-ulceration period (with r values respectively -0.71 and -0.50, P values below 0.01). The pathological scars of strong tension around lesions were seen in 176 cases. (3) The major histopathological type was squamous cell carcinoma, with high cell differentiation in most cases. (4) Bone invasion of carcinoma cells was observed in 59 cases. Lymph node enlargement was observed in 100 cases, and lymph node metastasis was observed in 18 cases. (5) Twenty patients did not receive any surgery, while 167 patients were treated by surgery with lesion extended resection as the main method. According to the condition of wound after the lesion extended resection, the wounds were mainly repaired by skin grafting and transplantation of local skin flap. The majority of wounds in 139 patients who underwent lesion extended resection were repaired in one surgery. Twenty-eight patients out of 104 followed-up cases had recurrence after surgery, mainly seen on head and face, upper limb, lower limb, and buttock, and there was no significant difference among them (P>0.05). The recurrence time of most patients was longer than 6 months after cure.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients with Marjolin's ulcers in younger age of onset of initial injury or primary disease tend to have longer latency, during which the shorter the pre-ulceration period is, the longer the post-ulceration period will be. Marjolin's ulcers are prone to occur in scar sites with large tension. Early treatment of high tension scar and scar ulcer is important in prevention, and surgery is the optimal treatment for Marjolin's ulcers. Regular follow-up should be carried out owning to recurrence rate in certain degree after surgery.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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