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J Hazard Mater. 2016 Sep 5;315:117-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.05.003. Epub 2016 May 4.

Variations and factors that influence the formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing solid waste.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.
2
State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Materials, Beijing Building Materials Academy of Sciences Research, Beijing 100041, China.
3
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address: grliu@rcees.ac.cn.

Abstract

Pilot studies of unintentionally produced pollutants should be performed before waste being co-processed in cement kilns. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) formation and emission from cement kilns co-processing sorted municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and waste acid, however, have not previously been studied. Here, PCNs were analyzed in stack gas samples and solid samples from different stages of three cement production runs. PCN destruction efficiencies were higher when waste was co-processed (93.1% and 88.7% in two tests) than when waste was not co-processed (39.1%), so co-processing waste would not increase PCN outputs. The PCN concentrations were higher in particle samples from the C1 preheater and stages at back end of kiln than in particle samples from other stages, suggesting that cyclone preheater and back end of kiln should be focused for controlling PCN emissions. Besides that, based on the variation of PCN concentrations and corresponding operating conditions in different stages, the temperature, feeding materials, and chlorine content were suggested as the main factors influencing PCN formation. The PCN homologue and congener profiles suggested chlorination and dechlorination were the main PCN formation and decomposition pathways, and congeners CN-23, CN-46, and CN-59 appear to be appropriate indicators of PCNs emitted from coal-burning sources.

KEYWORDS:

Cement kiln; Destruction efficiency; Influencing factors; Polychlorinated naphthalenes; Solid waste

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