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Curr Biol. 2016 Jun 6;26(11):1480-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.04.016. Epub 2016 May 12.

Gut Microbiota and Extreme Longevity.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy. Electronic address: elena.biagi@unibo.it.
2
DIMES-Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy; CIG-Interdepartmental Centre "L. Galvani," Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy; IRCCS, Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna, Bologna 40139, Italy.
3
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy.
4
Institute of Biomedical Technologies, National Research Council (ITB-CNR), Segrate, Milan 20090, Italy.
5
DIMES-Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy; CIG-Interdepartmental Centre "L. Galvani," Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy.
6
Department of Clinical, Experimental and Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence 50134, Italy.
7
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy. Electronic address: marco.candela@unibo.it.

Abstract

The study of the extreme limits of human lifespan may allow a better understanding of how human beings can escape, delay, or survive the most frequent age-related causes of morbidity, a peculiarity shown by long-living individuals. Longevity is a complex trait in which genetics, environment, and stochasticity concur to determine the chance to reach 100 or more years of age [1]. Because of its impact on human metabolism and immunology, the gut microbiome has been proposed as a possible determinant of healthy aging [2, 3]. Indeed, the preservation of host-microbes homeostasis can counteract inflammaging [4], intestinal permeability [5], and decline in bone and cognitive health [6, 7]. Aiming at deepening our knowledge on the relationship between the gut microbiota and a long-living host, we provide for the first time the phylogenetic microbiota analysis of semi-supercentenarians, i.e., 105-109 years old, in comparison to adults, elderly, and centenarians, thus reconstructing the longest available human microbiota trajectory along aging. We highlighted the presence of a core microbiota of highly occurring, symbiotic bacterial taxa (mostly belonging to the dominant Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroidaceae families), with a cumulative abundance decreasing along with age. Aging is characterized by an increasing abundance of subdominant species, as well as a rearrangement in their co-occurrence network. These features are maintained in longevity and extreme longevity, but peculiarities emerged, especially in semi-supercentenarians, describing changes that, even accommodating opportunistic and allochthonous bacteria, might possibly support health maintenance during aging, such as an enrichment and/or higher prevalence of health-associated groups (e.g., Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Christensenellaceae).

PMID:
27185560
DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2016.04.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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