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Respir Res. 2016 May 17;17(1):56. doi: 10.1186/s12931-016-0368-x.

Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses.

Author information

1
Manchester Academic Health and Science Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, Centre for Respiratory and Allergy Medicine, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Andrew.Higham@manchester.ac.uk.
2
Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
3
Manchester Academic Health and Science Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester Foundation Trust, Centre for Respiratory and Allergy Medicine, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing and there is widespread perception that e-cigs are safe. E-cigs contain harmful chemicals; more research is needed to evaluate the safety of e-cig use. Our aim was to investigate the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils.

METHODS:

Neutrophils were exposed to e-cig vapour extract (ECVE) and the expression of CD11b and CD66b was measured by flow cytometry and MMP-9 and CXCL8 by ELISA. We also measured the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) and MMP-9, along with the activation of inflammatory signalling pathways. Finally we analysed the biochemical composition of ECVE by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

RESULTS:

ECVE caused an increase in the expression of CD11b and CD66b, and increased the release of MMP-9 and CXCL8. Furthermore, there was an increase in NE and MMP-9 activity and an increase in p38 MAPK activation. We also identified several harmful chemicals in ECVE, including known carcinogens.

CONCLUSIONS:

ECVE causes a pro-inflammatory response from human neutrophils. This raises concerns over the safety of e-cig use.

KEYWORDS:

COPD; Electronic cigarettes; Inflammation; MMP-9; Neutrophils; Smoking

PMID:
27184092
PMCID:
PMC4869345
DOI:
10.1186/s12931-016-0368-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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