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J Phys Chem Lett. 2016 Jun 2;7(11):2055-62. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.6b00687. Epub 2016 May 19.

Negative Pressures and Spallation in Water Drops Subjected to Nanosecond Shock Waves.

Author information

1
Stanford PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory , Menlo Park, California 94025, United States.
2
Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory , Menlo Park, California 94025, United States.
3
Paul Scherrer Institute , CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
4
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University , Princeton, New Jersey 08544, United States.
5
Technology Innovation Directorate, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory , Menlo Park, California 94025, United States.
6
Accelerator Directorate, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory , Menlo Park, California 94025, United States.

Abstract

Most experimental studies of cavitation in liquid water at negative pressures reported cavitation at tensions significantly smaller than those expected for homogeneous nucleation, suggesting that achievable tensions are limited by heterogeneous cavitation. We generated tension pulses with nanosecond rise times in water by reflecting cylindrical shock waves, produced by X-ray laser pulses, at the internal surface of drops of water. Depending on the X-ray pulse energy, a range of cavitation phenomena occurred, including the rupture and detachment, or spallation, of thin liquid layers at the surface of the drop. When spallation occurred, we evaluated that negative pressures below -100 MPa were reached in the drops. We model the negative pressures from shock reflection experiments using a nucleation-and-growth model that explains how rapid decompression could outrun heterogeneous cavitation in water, and enable the study of stretched water close to homogeneous cavitation pressures.

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