Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Prev Med. 2016 Nov;51(5):767-778. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2016.04.003. Epub 2016 May 11.

Predictors of the Onset of Cigarette Smoking: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Population-Based Studies in Youth.

Author information

1
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts.
2
Centre de recherche CHUM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
3
Centre de recherche CHUM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
4
Centre de recherche CHUM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Exercise Science/INDI program, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
5
Centre de recherche CHUM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address: jennifer.oloughlin@umontreal.ca.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

The onset of cigarette smoking typically occurs during childhood or early adolescence. Nicotine dependence symptoms can manifest soon after onset, contributing to sustained, long-term smoking. Previous reviews have not clarified the determinants of onset.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:

In 2015, a systematic review of the literature in PubMed and EMBASE was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed prospective longitudinal studies published between January 1984 and August 2015 that investigated predictors of cigarette smoking onset among youth aged <18 years who had never smoked.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:

Ninety-eight conceptually different potential predictors were identified in 53 studies. An increased risk of smoking onset was consistently (i.e., in four or more studies) associated with increased age/grade, lower SES, poor academic performance, sensation seeking or rebelliousness, intention to smoke in the future, receptivity to tobacco promotion efforts, susceptibility to smoking, family members' smoking, having friends who smoke, and exposure to films, whereas higher self-esteem and high parental monitoring/supervision of the child appeared to protect against smoking onset. Methodologic weaknesses were identified in numerous studies, including failure to account for attrition or for clustering in samples, and misidentification of potential confounders, which may have led to biased estimates of associations.

CONCLUSIONS:

Predictors of smoking onset for which there is robust evidence should be considered in the design of interventions to prevent first puff in order to optimize their effectiveness. Future research should seek to define onset clearly as the transition from never use to first use (e.g., first few puffs).

PMID:
27180028
DOI:
10.1016/j.amepre.2016.04.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center