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Trends Mol Med. 2016 Jun;22(6):458-478. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2016.04.003. Epub 2016 May 10.

Antibiotic-Induced Changes in the Intestinal Microbiota and Disease.

Author information

1
Immunology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
2
Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Lucille Castori Center for Microbes, Inflammation and Cancer, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
3
Immunology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Lucille Castori Center for Microbes, Inflammation and Cancer, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address: pamere@mskcc.org.

Abstract

The gut microbiota is a key player in many physiological and pathological processes occurring in humans. Recent investigations suggest that the efficacy of some clinical approaches depends on the action of commensal bacteria. Antibiotics are invaluable weapons to fight infectious diseases. However, by altering the composition and functions of the microbiota, they can also produce long-lasting deleterious effects for the host. The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens raises concerns about the common, and at times inappropriate, use of antimicrobial agents. Here we review the most recently discovered connections between host pathophysiology, microbiota, and antibiotics highlighting technological platforms, mechanistic insights, and clinical strategies to enhance resistance to diseases by preserving the beneficial functions of the microbiota.

KEYWORDS:

antibiotic resistance; antibiotics; disease; gut microbiota; immunity

PMID:
27178527
PMCID:
PMC4885777
DOI:
10.1016/j.molmed.2016.04.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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