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Phys Rev E. 2016 Apr;93:042410. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.042410. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins.

Author information

1
Department of Physics & Astronomy and Molecular and Computational Biology Program, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA.
2
Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
3
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

Abstract

Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane environments provided by living cells.

PMID:
27176332
DOI:
10.1103/PhysRevE.93.042410
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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