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Nutr J. 2016 May 12;15(1):53. doi: 10.1186/s12937-016-0175-8.

Impact of menaquinone-4 supplementation on coronary artery calcification and arterial stiffness: an open label single arm study.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, 259-1193, Japan. ikari@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp.
2
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, 259-1193, Japan.
3
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-5-7 Asahimachi, Abenoku, Osaka, 545-0051, Japan.
4
Department of Hygienic Sciences, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-9-1 Motoyamakitamachi, Higashinadaku, Kobe, 658-0003, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dietary intake of vitamin K has been reported to reduce coronary artery calcification (CAC) and cardiovascular events. However, it is unknown whether supplemental menaquinone (MK)-4 can reduce CAC or arterial stiffness. To study the effect of MK-4 supplementation on CAC and brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV).

METHODS:

This study is a single arm design to take 45 mg/day MK-4 daily as a therapeutic drug for 1 year. Primary endpoint was CAC score determined using 64-slice multislice CT (Siemens), and the secondary endpoint was baPWV measured before and 1 year after MK-4 therapy.

RESULTS:

A total of 26 patients were enrolled. The average age was 69 ± 8 years and 65 % were female. Plasma levels of phylloquinone (PK), MK-7, and MK4 were 1.94 ± 1.38 ng/ml, 14.2 ± 11.9 ng/ml and 0.4 ± 2.0 ng/ml, respectively, suggesting that MK-7 was the dominant vitamin K in the studied population. Baseline CAC and baPWV were 513 ± 773 and 1834 ± 289 cm/s, respectively. At 1 year following MK-4 supplementation, the values were 588 ± 872 (+14 %) and 1821 ± 378 cm/s (-0.7 %), respectively. In patients with high PIVKA-2, -18 % annual reduction of baPWV was observed.

CONCLUSION:

Despite high dose MK-4 supplementation, CAC increased +14 % annually, but baPWV did not change (-0.7 %). The benefits of MK-4 supplementation were only observed in patients with vitamin K insufficiencies correlated with high PIVKA-2 baseline levels, reducing baPWV but not CAC.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

This study was registered as UMIN 000002760.

KEYWORDS:

Coronary artery calcification; Pulse wave velocity; Vitamin K

PMID:
27175730
PMCID:
PMC4866409
DOI:
10.1186/s12937-016-0175-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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