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Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 May;95(19):e3533. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000003533.

Vitamin D Deficiency Strongly Predicts Adverse Medical Outcome Across Different Medical Inpatient Populations: Results From a Prospective Study.

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From the Medical University Department (LG, SF, AK, SH, LF, BM, PS), University of Basel, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau; Medical Faculty of the University of Basel (MM), Basel; and Department of Laboratory Medicine (MK, AH), Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.


Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with several adverse outcomes mainly in the outpatient setting. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with risk of adverse clinical outcomes in a large prospective cohort of medical inpatients.We collected clinical data and measured 25(OH)D levels in adult medical patients upon hospital admission and followed them for 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, comorbidities, and main medical diagnosis were performed to study the effect of vitamin D deficiency on several hospital outcomes.Of 4257 included patients, 1510 (35.47%) had 25(OH)D levels of 25 to 50 nmol/L (vitamin D insufficiency) and 797 (18.72%) had levels of <25nmol/L (severe deficiency). Vitamin D insufficiency and severe deficiency were associated (OR/HR, 95%CI) with an increased risk of 30-day mortality (OR 1.70, 1.22-2.36 and 2.70, 1.22-2.36) and increased length of stay (HR 0.88, 0.81-0.97 and 0.72, 0.65-0.81). Severe deficiency was associated with risk of falls (OR 1.77, 1.18-2.63), impaired Barthel index (OR 1.80, 1.42-2.28), and impairment in quality of life. Most associations remained robust after multivariate adjustment and in subgroups stratified by gender, age, comorbidities, and main diagnoses (P for interaction >0.05).In this comprehensive and large medical inpatient cohort, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent and strongly associated with adverse clinical outcome. Interventional research is urgently needed to prove the effect of vitamin D supplementation on these outcomes.

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