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Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016 Jun;26(6):541-8. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2016.01.014. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Association of heart rate and blood pressure among European adolescents with usual food consumption: The HELENA study.

Author information

1
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
3
CHRU Lille, Faculté Médecine, Université de Lille, France.
4
CIC-PT-9301-Inserm-CH&U of Lille, CHRU de Lille, F-59037 Lille, France.
5
Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France.
6
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
7
CRA-NUT, Agricultural Research Council-Food and Nutrition Research Centre, Rome, Italy.
8
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
9
Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
10
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; YCARE (Youth/Child and cArdiovascular Risk and Environmental) Research Group, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
11
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences-INEF, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
12
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences-Nutrition Physiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
13
Department of Medical Physiology School of Medicine, Granada University, Granada, Spain.
14
Spain Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn, Dortmund, Germany.
15
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
16
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Dietary Exposure Assessment Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. Electronic address: huybrechtsi@iarc.fr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM:

In adults, there is some evidence that improving diet reduces blood pressure (BP) and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, studies that analyse this association in adolescents are still scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between heart rate, systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) among European adolescents and usual intake of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, meat, fish, high-sugar foods and savoury snacks.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

In total, 2283 adolescents from the HELENA-study (12.5-17.5 years old; 1253 girls) were included. Dietary intake was assessed using two computerized 24-hour dietary recalls. Age, sex, body mass index, maternal educational level, physical activity and Tanner stage were considered as confounders. Associations were examined by mixed model analysis stratified by sex. Tests for trend were assessed by tertiles of intake while controlling for the aforementioned confounders. Dairy products and fish intake were negatively associated with BP and heart rate. Significant decreasing trends were observed for heart rate and BP across tertiles of dairy products, fish intake and high-sugar foods intake (p < 0.05). Significant increasing trends were observed for SBP and MAP across tertiles of savoury snack intake (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

Significant but small inverse associations between fish and dairy products consumption with blood pressure and heart rate have been found in European adolescents. Dietary intervention studies are needed to explore these associations in the context of the modification of several risk factors for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Dairy products; Diet; Fish intake; Systolic blood pressure

PMID:
27174584
DOI:
10.1016/j.numecd.2016.01.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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