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Sci Rep. 2016 May 13;6:25888. doi: 10.1038/srep25888.

Efficient production of cynomolgus monkeys with a toolbox of enhanced assisted reproductive technologies.

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College of Veterinary Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control for Severe Clinical Animal Diseases, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, P. R. China.
Shenzhen Key Lab of Neuropsychiatric Modulation and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, P. R. China.
Center for Stem Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering, Key Laboratory for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, P. R. China.
Blooming-spring biotechnology development Co., Ltd., of Guangdong, Guangzhou 510940, P. R. China.
State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P. R. China.
McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.


The efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in nonhuman primates is low due to no screening criterions for selecting sperm, oocyte, and embryo as well as its surrogate mothers. Here we analyzed 15 pairs of pregnant and non-pregnant cynomolgus monkeys, each pair of which received embryos from one batch of fertilized oocytes, and found ratio of endometrial to myometrial thicknesses in abdominal ultrasonic transverse section of uterus is a reliable indicator for selection of recipients for embryo transfer. We performed 305 ovarian stimulations in 128 female cynomolgus monkeys and found that ovarian stimulation can be performed in a whole year and repeated up to six times in the same monkey without deteriorating fertilization potential of eggs until a poor response to stimulation happened. Fertilization can be efficiently achieved with both conventional and piezo-driven intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. In semen collection, semen quality is higher with the penile robe electrical stimulus method compared with the rectal probe method. Moreover, caesarean section is an effective strategy for increasing baby survival rates of multiple pregnancies. These findings provide a practical guidance for the efficient use of ARTs, facilitating their use in genetic engineering of macaque monkeys for basic and translational neuroscience research.

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