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J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2016 May;77(3):393-404.

Interactions Between Alcohol Metabolism Genes and Religious Involvement in Association With Maximum Drinks and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms.

Author information

1
Virginia Commonwealth University School of Social Work, Richmond, Virginia.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia.
3
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.
4
South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.
5
Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut.
6
Faculty of Business, Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey.
7
Department of Psychiatry, University of San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California.
8
Departments of Pediatrics and Human Genetics, Howard University, Washington, DC.
9
Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa.
10
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
11
Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.
12
Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Variations in the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes are associated with both alcohol consumption and dependence in multiple populations. Additionally, some environmental factors have been recognized as modifiers of these relationships. This study examined the modifying effect of religious involvement on relationships between ADH gene variants and alcohol consumption-related phenotypes.

METHOD:

Subjects were African American, European American, and Hispanic American adults with lifetime exposure to alcohol (N = 7,716; 53% female) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Genetic markers included ADH1Brs1229984, ADH1B-rs2066702, ADH1C-rs698, ADH4-rs1042364, and ADH4-rs1800759. Phenotypes were maximum drinks consumed in a 24-hour period and total number of alcohol dependence symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Religious involvement was defined by self-reported religious services attendance.

RESULTS:

Both religious involvement and ADH1B-rs1229984 were negatively associated with the number of maximum drinks consumed and the number of lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms endorsed. The interactions of religious involvement with ADH1B-rs2066702, ADH1C-rs698, and ADH4-rs1042364 were significantly associated with maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms. Risk variants had weaker associations with maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms as a function of increasing religious involvement.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study provided initial evidence of a modifying effect for religious involvement on relationships between ADH variants and maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms.

PMID:
27172571
PMCID:
PMC4869897
DOI:
10.15288/jsad.2016.77.393
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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