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J Lipid Res. 2016 Sep;57(9):1720-7. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M067801. Epub 2016 May 11.

Differential effects of EPA versus DHA on postprandial vascular function and the plasma oxylipin profile in men.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7UQ, United Kingdom.
2
Institute for Vascular Signalling, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Goethe University, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany.
3
Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7UQ, United Kingdom Institute of Food Research, Norwich NR4 7UA, United Kingdom.
4
Institute of Food Research, Norwich NR4 7UA, United Kingdom.
5
Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7UQ, United Kingdom a.minihane@uea.ac.uk.

Abstract

Our objective was to investigate the impact of EPA versus DHA on arterial stiffness and reactivity and underlying mechanisms (with a focus on plasma oxylipins) in the postprandial state. In a three-arm crossover acute test meal trial, men (n = 26, 35-55 years) at increased CVD risk received a high-fat (42.4 g) test meal providing 4.16 g of EPA or DHA or control oil in random order. At 0 h and 4 h, blood samples were collected to quantify plasma fatty acids, long chain n-3 PUFA-derived oxylipins, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide, and serum lipids and glucose. Vascular function was assessed using blood pressure, reactive hyperemia index, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index (AIx). The DHA-rich oil significantly reduced AIx by 13% (P = 0.047) with the decrease following EPA-rich oil intervention not reaching statistical significance. Both interventions increased EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins in the acute postprandial state, with an (1.3-fold) increase in 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid evident after DHA intervention (P < 0.001). In conclusion, a single dose of DHA significantly improved postprandial arterial stiffness as assessed by AIx, which if sustained would be associated with a significant decrease in CVD risk. The observed increases in oxylipins provide a mechanistic insight into the AIx effect.

KEYWORDS:

augmentation index; blood pressure; docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; fish oil; hydrogen sulfide; lipidomics; nitric oxide; nutrition; omega-3 fatty acids; pulse wave velocity

PMID:
27170732
PMCID:
PMC5003154
DOI:
10.1194/jlr.M067801
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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