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Eur J Endocrinol. 2016 Jun;174(6):R275-90. doi: 10.1530/EJE-15-0972.

GEP- NETS UPDATE: Genetics of neuroendocrine tumors.

Author information

1
Department of Medical SciencesUppsala University, Rudbecklaboratoriet, Dag hammarskjölds väg 20, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden joakim.crona@medsci.uu.se.
2
Department of Medical SciencesUppsala University, Rudbecklaboratoriet, Dag hammarskjölds väg 20, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.

Abstract

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, arising from neuroendocrine cells that are dispersed throughout the body. Around 20% of NETs occur in the context of a genetic syndrome. Today there are at least ten recognized NET syndromes. This includes the classical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasias types 1 and 2, and von Hippel-Lindau and neurofibromatosis type 1. Additional susceptibility genes associated with a smaller fraction of NETs have also been identified. Recognizing genetic susceptibility has proved essential both to provide genetic counseling and to give the best preventive care. In this review we will also discuss the knowledge of somatic genetic alterations in NETs. At least 24 genes have been implicated as drivers of neuroendocrine tumorigenesis, and the overall rates of genomic instability are relatively low. Genetic intra-tumoral, as well as inter-tumoral heterogeneity in the same patient, have also been identified. Together these data point towards the common pathways in NET evolution, separating early from late disease drivers. Although knowledge of specific mutations in NETs has limited impact on actual patient management, we predict that in the near future genomic profiling of tumors will be included in the clinical arsenal for diagnostics, prognostics and therapeutic decisions.

PMID:
27165966
DOI:
10.1530/EJE-15-0972
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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