Send to

Choose Destination
J Exerc Rehabil. 2016 Apr 26;12(2):99-108. doi: 10.12965/jer.1632544.272. eCollection 2016 Apr.

Analysis of ipsilateral and bilateral ratios in male amateur golfers.

Author information

Department of Physical Activity Design, Hanseo University, Seosan, Korea.
School of Sports and Leisure Studies, Korea University, Sejong, Korea.
Department of Physical Education, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.
Department of Physical Education, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.


The number of injuries that force golfers to quit is also increasing. In particular, the upper body injuries are concerns for amateur golfers. This study was conducted not only to investigate muscular balance, such as ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the upper body, but to also evaluate the possible problems of muscular joints in amateur golfers. Male golfers (n=10) and a healthy control group (n=10) were recruited for the assessment of muscular function in the upper body, which was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/sec. The tested parts were trunk, wrist, forearm, elbow, and shoulder joints. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance of the differences between groups. The ipsilateral ratios of peak torque or work per repetition (WR) of trunk flexor and extensor in the golfers were not significantly different compared to those of the control group. These results were similar to the shoulder horizontal abductor and adductor. However, there were significant differences in the ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints. Especially, the WR of the wrist flexor, forearm pronator, and elbow flexor on the left side of amateur golfers showed imbalances in bilateral ratios. Moreover, the WR of the wrist and elbow flexors on the left side of amateur golfers were lower than those of the wrist and elbow extensors. Therefore, amateur golfers should strive to prevent injuries of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints and to reinforce the endurance on those parts of the left side.


Amateur golfer; Bilateral ratio; Elbow; Forearm; Ipsilateral ratio; Wrist

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center