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Nefrologia. 2016 May-Jun;36(3):292-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nefro.2016.03.014. Epub 2016 May 6.

Prevalence of hyponatraemia in patients over the age of 65 who have an in-hospital fall.

[Article in English, Spanish]

Author information

1
Centro de Especialidades de Moratalaz, Grupo de Enfermería, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España. Electronic address: carmenlobor@gmail.com.
2
Grupo de Enfermería, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España.
3
Servicio de Continuidad de Cuidados del Anciano Frágil, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España.
4
Departamento de Cirugía, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, España.
5
Laboratorio de Fisiopatología Renal, Unidad de Medicina y Cirugía Experimental, Departamento de Nefrología, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón. Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM:

Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte disorder. Some studies have found that it increases morbidity and mortality. There are new lines of research that are investigating the link between hyponatraemia and patient falls.

AIM:

To determine if hyponatraemia is associated with falls in elderly hospitalised patients.

METHODS:

Design observational, analytical, case-control study.

STUDY POPULATION:

Patients older than 65 years who had fallen during their hospitalisation at Gregorio Marañón Hospital (Madrid) were considered cases. Patients who did not fall were considered to be controls, paired according to the following variables: hospital ward, age, length of hospital stay, gender and Downton fall risk index. The sample size was 206 subjects.

DATA COLLECTION:

Socio-demographic factors, variables included in the falls record sheet, Downton fall risk index and sodium levels were studied (hyponatraemia was considered Na(+)< 135mmol/l).

ANALYSIS:

A descriptive analysis was performed to determine the sample homogeneity. The OR was calculated, and an analytical analysis using Chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were also performed.

RESULTS:

Of 103 cases recruited, 61 were men (50.4%) and 42 were women (49.4%). Hyponatraemia was detected in 29 cases with an association with falls of P: 0.002. The adjusted OR was 3.708 (1.6-8.3), 95% CI. Risk factors for falls were identified as hyponatraemia and limb sensory deficits.

CONCLUSIONS:

Given that hyponatraemia could be considered a risk factor for falls, the inclusion of the determination of sodium level would be important for fall prevention strategies in the elderly.

KEYWORDS:

Accidental Falls; Accidentes por caídas; Anciano; Elderly; Factores de riesgo; Hiponatremia; Hyponatraemia; Risk factors

PMID:
27161308
DOI:
10.1016/j.nefro.2016.03.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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