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J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016 Aug 28;26(8):1367-74. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1603.03009.

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Various Cultivars of Kiwi Berry (Actinidia arguta) on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

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Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Republic of Korea.
Skin Biotechnology Center, Kyung Hee University, Suwon 16229, Republic of Korea.
Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA.
Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Republic of Korea.
Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea.
Fruit Research Institute, Jeollanam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Wando 59104, Republic of Korea.


The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of three cultivars of Actinidia arguta Planch. kiwi berries; cv. Mansoo (Mansoo), cv. Chiak (Chiak), and cv. Haeyeon (Haeyeon). In addition, the anti-inflammatory effects of the three cultivars of kiwi berries were investigated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Mansoo had the highest total phenolic content and TAC among the three cultivars, whereas Chiak had the highest total flavonoid content. The total antioxidant capacities of the kiwi berry extracts were more strongly correlated with total phenolic content than with total flavonoid content. The kiwi berry extracts suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The release of nitrite, an indirect indicator of nitric oxide, was also ameliorated by pre-treatment with the kiwi berry extracts in a dose-dependent manner. Cellular-based measurements of antioxidant capacity exhibited that the kiwi berry extracts had cellular antioxidant capacities. Such cellular antioxidant effects are possibly attributed to their direct antioxidant capacity or to the inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation via anti-inflammatory effects. Our findings suggest that kiwi berries are potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.


Actinidia arguta Planch.; anti-inflammatory activity; antioxidant capacity; kiwi berries; total phenolics

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