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Behav Sleep Med. 2016 Nov-Dec;14(6):687-98. doi: 10.1080/15402002.2016.1173551. Epub 2016 May 9.

Where are the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Providers and Where are They Needed? A Geographic Assessment.

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a Department of Biology , University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia , Pennsylvania , USA.
b Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry , University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia , Pennsylvania , USA.
c Department of Psychiatry , College of Medicine, University of Arizona , Tucson , Arizona , USA.
d Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences , The University of Texas (Medical Branch) , Galveston , Texas , USA.
e Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology , University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia , Pennsylvania , USA.


Although it is widely acknowledged that there are not enough clinicians trained in either Behavioral Sleep Medicine (BSM) in general or in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in specific, what is unclear is whether this problem is more acute in some regions relative to others. Accordingly, a geographic approach was taken to assess this issue. Using national directories as well as e-mail listservs (Behavioral Sleep Medicine group and Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia Roster), the present study evaluated geographic patterning of CBSM and BSM providers by city, state, and country. Overall, 88% of 752 BSM providers worldwide live in the United States (n = 659). Of these, 58% reside in 12 states with ≥ 20 providers (CA, NY, PA, IL, MA, TX, FL, OH, MI, MN, WA, and CO), and 19% reside in just 2 states (NY and CA). There were 4 states with no BSM providers (NH, HI, SD, and WY). Of the 167 U.S. cities with a population of > 150,000, 105 cities have no BSM providers. These results clearly suggest that a targeted effort is needed to train individuals in both the unserved and underserved areas.

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