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Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Jun;16(6):392-400. doi: 10.1038/nri.2016.43. Epub 2016 May 9.

Harnessing the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccination.

Author information

1
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA.
2
Immunology, Inflammation, and Infectious Diseases (Disease and Therapeutic Area), Roche Pharma Research &Early Development, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel 4070, Switzerland.
3
Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne; and Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, Parkville 3052, Australia.
4
Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Paediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z4H4, Canada.
5
Precision Vaccines Program, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
6
Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
7
Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford; and at the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine (CCVTM), Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK.
8
Global Health Program, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA.

Abstract

Clinical evidence strongly suggests that certain live vaccines, in particular bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and measles vaccines, can reduce all-cause mortality, most probably through protection against non-targeted pathogens in addition to the targeted pathogen. The underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. We discuss how heterologous lymphocyte activation and innate immune memory could promote protection beyond the intended target pathogen and consider how vaccinologists could leverage heterologous immunity to improve outcomes in vulnerable populations, in particular the very young and the elderly.

PMID:
27157064
PMCID:
PMC4931283
DOI:
10.1038/nri.2016.43
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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