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Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Mar;30(2):317-28. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2016.02.006. Epub 2016 Feb 27.

Diabetes insipidus in infants and children.

Author information

  • 1Division of Endocrinology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 225 East Chicago Avenue, Box 54, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address: Edabrowski@luriechildrens.org.
  • 2Division of Endocrinology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 225 East Chicago Avenue, Box 54, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address: Rkadakia@luriechildrens.org.
  • 3Division of Endocrinology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 225 East Chicago Avenue, Box 54, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address: Dzimmerman@luriechildrens.org.

Abstract

Diabetes insipidus, the inability to concentrate urine resulting in polyuria and polydipsia, can have different manifestations and management considerations in infants and children compared to adults. Central diabetes insipidus, secondary to lack of vasopressin production, is more common in children than is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the inability to respond appropriately to vasopressin. The goal of treatment in both forms of diabetes insipidus is to decrease urine output and thirst while allowing for appropriate fluid balance, normonatremia and ensuring an acceptable quality of life for each patient. An infant's obligate need to consume calories as liquid and the need for readjustment of medication dosing in growing children both present unique challenges for diabetes insipidus management in the pediatric population. Treatment modalities typically include vasopressin or thiazide diuretics. Special consideration must be given when managing diabetes insipidus in the adipsic patient, post-surgical patient, and in those undergoing chemotherapy or receiving medications that alter free water clearance.

KEYWORDS:

diabetes insipidus; nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; polydipsia; polyuria; vasopressin

PMID:
27156767
DOI:
10.1016/j.beem.2016.02.006
[PubMed - in process]

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