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Vaccine. 2016 Jun 8;34(27):3068-3075. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.04.080. Epub 2016 May 3.

Impact of enterovirus and other enteric pathogens on oral polio and rotavirus vaccine performance in Bangladeshi infants.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22908, USA. Electronic address: mt2f@virginia.edu.
2
Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22908, USA.
3
Center for Vaccine Science and Parasitology Lab, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.
4
Vaccine Testing Center and Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
5
Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22908, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Oral polio vaccine (OPV) and rotavirus vaccine (RV) exhibit poorer performance in low-income settings compared to high-income settings. Prior studies have suggested an inhibitory effect of concurrent non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) infection, but the impact of other enteric infections has not been comprehensively evaluated.

METHODS:

In urban Bangladesh, we tested stools for a broad range of enteric viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi by quantitative PCR from infants at weeks 6 and 10 of life, coincident with the first OPV and RV administration respectively, and examined the association between enteropathogen quantity and subsequent OPV serum neutralizing titers, serum rotavirus IgA, and rotavirus diarrhea.

RESULTS:

Campylobacter and enterovirus (EV) quantity at the time of administration of the first dose of OPV was associated with lower OPV1-2 serum neutralizing titers, while enterovirus quantity was also associated with diminished rotavirus IgA (-0.08 change in log titer per tenfold increase in quantity; P=0.037), failure to seroconvert (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.96; P=0.022), and breakthrough rotavirus diarrhea (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.71; P=0.020) after adjusting for potential confounders. These associations were not observed for Sabin strain poliovirus quantity.

CONCLUSION:

In this broad survey of enteropathogens and oral vaccine performance we find a particular association between EV carriage, particularly NPEV, and OPV immunogenicity and RV protection. Strategies to reduce EV infections may improve oral vaccine responses. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01375647.

KEYWORDS:

Enteric infections; Oral polio vaccine; PCR; Rotavirus vaccine; Vaccine efficacy; Vaccine immunogenicity

PMID:
27154394
PMCID:
PMC4912219
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.04.080
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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