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Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Aug;70:25-32. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.04.017. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

Purine metabolism is dysregulated in patients with major depressive disorder.

Author information

1
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: tonial@student.uef.fi.
2
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 100, 70029 KYS, Finland.
3
Metabolomics Unit, Institute for Molecular Medicine, Finland.
4
Primary Health Care Unit, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland.
5
Department of Education and Psychology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland.
6
Metabolomics Unit, Institute for Molecular Medicine, Finland; FIMM, P.O. Box 20, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

The purine cycle and altered purinergic signaling have been suggested to play a role in major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, data on this topic are scarce. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that compared with non-depressed controls, MDD patients have distinct purine metabolite profiles.

METHODS:

The samples comprised 99 MDD patients and 253 non-depressed controls, aged 20-71 years. Background data were collected with questionnaires. Fasting serum samples were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to determine seven purine cycle metabolites belonging to the purine cycle. We investigated the levels of these metabolites in three settings: (1) MDD patients vs. non-depressed controls and (2) remitted vs. non-remitted MDD patients, and also (3) within-group changes in metabolite levels during the follow-up period.

RESULTS:

In logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise, glycosylated hemoglobin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lower levels of inosine (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97) and guanosine (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.59), and higher levels of xanthine (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.30-3.75) were associated with MDD vs. the non-depressed group. Levels of several metabolites changed significantly during the follow-up period in the MDD group, but there were no differences between remitted and non-remitted groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

We observed altered purine metabolism in MDD patients compared with non-depressed controls. Furthermore, our observations suggest that circulating xanthine may accumulate in MDD patients.

KEYWORDS:

Guanosine; Inosine; Major depressive disorder; Metabolomics; Purine metabolism; Xanthine

PMID:
27153521
DOI:
10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.04.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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