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Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016 Jun 2;12(6):1615-22. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2016.1150394. Epub 2016 May 6.

Impact of school-entry and education mandates by states on HPV vaccination coverage: Analysis of the 2009-2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen.

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a Boston University School of Medicine/Boston Medical Center , Boston , MA , USA.
b Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center/Georgetown University Medical Center , Washington DC , USA.
c Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System/Boston University School of Medicine , Boston , MA , USA.



To determine the effectiveness of existing school entry and education mandates on HPV vaccination coverage, we compared coverage among girls residing in states and jurisdictions with and without education and school-entry mandates. Virginia and the District of Columbia enacted school entry mandates, though both laws included liberal opt-out provisions. Ten additional states had mandates requiring distribution of education to parents or provision of education within school curricula.


Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen from 2009-2013, we estimated multilevel logistic regression models to compare coverage with HPV vaccines for girls ages 13-17 residing in states and jurisdictions with and without school entry and education mandates, adjusting for demographic factors, healthcare access, and provider recommendation.


Girls residing in states and jurisdictions with HPV vaccine school entry mandates (DC and VA) and education mandates (LA, MI, CO, IN, IA, IL, NJ, NC, TX, and WA) did not have higher HPV vaccine series initiation or completion than those living in states without mandates for any year (2009-2013). Similar results were seen when comparing girls ages 13-14 to those ages 15-17, and after adjustment for known covariates of vaccination.


States and jurisdictions with school-entry and education mandates do not currently have higher HPV vaccination coverage than states without such legislation. Liberal opt-out language in existing school entry mandates may weaken their impact. Policy-makers contemplating legislation to improve vaccination coverage should be aware of the limitations of existing mandates.


HPV vaccination; school-entry vaccine mandates; vaccine health policy

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