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Int J Obes Suppl. 2014 Jul;4(Suppl 1):S14-6. doi: 10.1038/ijosup.2014.5. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

The role of omega-3 fatty acid receptor GPR120 in insulin resistance.

Author information

1
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego , La Jolla, CA, USA.
2
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Graz University of Technology, Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Graz, Austria.

Abstract

Obesity is the dominant cause of acquired insulin resistance, and it is the epidemic of obesity in the United States that is driving the markedly increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes. Adipocyte dysfunction and chronic low-grade adipose tissue (AT) inflammation are the major causes of insulin resistance. Abnormal accumulation and activation of AT macrophages (ATMs) and abnormal activation of the TLR4-mediated immune responses within ATMs are the key characters of the chronic low-grade AT inflammation associated with insulin resistance. We have recently shown that GPR120 acts as a physiological receptor of omega-3 fatty acid in macrophages and adipocytes, which mediate potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. The important role that GPR120 has in the control of inflammation raises the possibility that targeting this receptor could have therapeutic potential in many inflammatory diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this review paper, we discuss omega-3 fatty acid-sensing GPR120 and highlight the potential outcomes of targeting this receptor in ameliorating disease.

KEYWORDS:

GPR120; chronic inflammation; insulin resistance; macrophage; omega-3 fatty acid

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