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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 Nov;27(11):3488-3497. Epub 2016 May 5.

CKD Progression and Mortality among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics.

Author information

Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois;
Medical Service, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.
Research Service, Center of Innovation for Complex Chronic Healthcare, Edward Hines Jr., VA Hospital, Hines, Illinois.
Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.
Kidney and Hypertension Unit, Joslin Diabetes Center and Nephrology Section, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; and.
Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology and Epidemiology, University of California San Francisco and San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California.


Although recommended approaches to CKD management are achieved less often in Hispanics than in non-Hispanics, whether long-term outcomes differ between these groups is unclear. In a prospective longitudinal analysis of participants enrolled into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies, we used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between race/ethnicity, CKD progression (50% eGFR loss or incident ESRD), incident ESRD, and all-cause mortality, and linear mixed-effects models to assess differences in eGFR slope. Among 3785 participants, 13% were Hispanic, 43% were non-Hispanic white (NHW), and 44% were non-Hispanic black (NHB). Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years for Hispanics and 6.8 years for non-Hispanics, 27.6% of all participants had CKD progression, 21.3% reached incident ESRD, and 18.3% died. Hispanics had significantly higher rates of CKD progression, incident ESRD, and mean annual decline in eGFR than did NHW (P<0.05) but not NHB. Hispanics had a mortality rate similar to that of NHW but lower than that of NHB (P<0.05). In adjusted analyses, the risk of CKD progression did not differ between Hispanics and NHW or NHB. However, among nondiabetic participants, compared with NHB, Hispanics had a lower risk of CKD progression (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.95) and incident ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.84). At higher levels of urine protein, Hispanics had a significantly lower risk of mortality than did non-Hispanics (P<0.05). Thus, important differences in CKD progression and mortality exist between Hispanics and non-Hispanics and may be affected by proteinuria and diabetes.


chronic kidney disease; ethnicity; mortality

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