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Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2016 Jul;12(7):381-93. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2016.55. Epub 2016 May 6.

Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects.

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Genomic and Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.
Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm), Institut de recherche en santé, environnement et travail (Irset-Inserm UMR 1085), 9 Avenue Léon Bernard, F-35042 RENNES, France.
Ecole des hautes études en santé publique (EHESP), Avenue Léon Bernard, F-35043 RENNES, France.
Department of Growth and Reproduction, University of Copenhagen, Section GR5064, Blegdamsvej 9, Rigshospitalet, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.


Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have endocrine disruptive properties capable of altering animal and human reproductive function from fetal life to adulthood in both sexes. Medical and public awareness about these health concerns should be increased, particularly among pregnant women.

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