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Nat Rev Cardiol. 2016 Jul;13(7):404-17. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2016.73. Epub 2016 May 6.

Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease prevention.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
3
Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria.
4
Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, Department of Cardiology, Bern University Hospital, Freiburgstrasse 8, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.
5
Specialist Clinic of Rehabilitation PV Bad Aussee, Braungasse 354, 8990 Bad Aussee, Austria.
6
Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria.
7
Medical Clinic V (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Mannheim Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Theodor Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim, Germany.
8
Synlab Academy, Synlab Holding Deutschland GmbH Augsburg, Gottlieb Daimler Strasse 25, 68165 Mannheim, Germany.

Abstract

Vitamin D is a precursor of the steroid hormone calcitriol that is crucial for bone and mineral metabolism. Both the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and the identification of the vitamin D receptor in the heart and blood vessels raised interest in the potential cardiovascular effects of vitamin D. Experimental studies have demonstrated various cardiovascular protective actions of vitamin D, but vitamin D intoxication in animals is known to induce vascular calcification. In meta-analyses of epidemiological studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Findings from Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) do not indicate significant effects of a general vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. Previous RCTs, however, were not adequately designed to address extraskeletal events, and did not focus on vitamin D-deficient individuals. Therefore, currently available evidence does not support cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation with the commonly used doses, and whether vitamin D has cardiovascular effects in individuals with overt vitamin D deficiency remains to be evaluated. Here, we provide an update on clinical studies on vitamin D and cardiovascular risk, discuss ongoing vitamin D research, and consider the management of vitamin D deficiency from a cardiovascular health perspective.

PMID:
27150190
DOI:
10.1038/nrcardio.2016.73
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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