Send to

Choose Destination
Perit Dial Int. 2017 1-2;37(1):35-43. doi: 10.3747/pdi.2015.00141. Epub 2016 May 4.

Risk of Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis in a Multi-Racial Asian Population.

Author information

Clinical Research Centre, Penang Hospital, Penang, Malaysia
Clinical Research Centre, Penang Hospital, Penang, Malaysia.
Clinical Research Centre, Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor, Malaysia.
Department of Nephrology, Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia.
Department of Nephrology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Department of Nephrology, Tuanku Jaafar Hospital, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
Department of Nephrology, Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor, Malaysia.


♦ BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is one of the most common complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Understanding the risk factors of peritonitis in a multi-racial Asian population may help to improve outcomes on PD. ♦ METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study to identify risk factors for PD-related peritonitis over a 1-year period in 15 adult PD centers. All peritonitis episodes were independently adjudicated. ♦ RESULTS: A total of 1,603 participants with a mean age of 51.6 years comprising 52.7% females, 62.6% ethnic Malays, 27.0% Chinese, and 8.1% Indians were recruited. The overall peritonitis rate was 1 episode per 44.0 patient-months with 354 episodes recorded in 282 (17.6%) patients over 15,588 patient-months. Significant risk factors of peritonitis were severe obesity (incidence-rate ratio [IRR] 3.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 8.45), hypoalbuminemia (IRR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.46), Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage (IRR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.50), and use of Fresenius system (Fresenius Medical Care North America, Waltham, MA, USA) (IRR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.89). The risk of peritonitis was lower in those on automated PD compared with standard PD (IRR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.74), and in centers with a patient-staff ratio of 15 to 29.9 (IRR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) and ≥ 30 (IRR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.80). Prevalent patients and exit-site care with topical antibiotics were also protective against peritonitis. Peritonitis rates varied between racial groups. The IRRs of overall peritonitis and gram-positive peritonitis in Chinese versus other racial groups were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.90) and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.91), respectively. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Multiple patient, center, and PD-system factors influence the risk of peritonitis. In the Asian population, there are racial differences in the risk of peritonitis.


Asian population; Peritoneal dialysis; center factors; patient factors; peritonitis; racial differences; risk factors; system factors

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center